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1 edition of Volatility characteristics of aircraft fuels at elevated temperatures found in the catalog.

Volatility characteristics of aircraft fuels at elevated temperatures

Volatility characteristics of aircraft fuels at elevated temperatures

final report

by

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Published by Coordinating Fuel and Equipment Research Committee of the Coordinating Research Council in New York .
Written in English


Edition Notes

StatementTurbine Vapor Lock Group, Aviation Fuels Division.
ContributionsCoordinating Research Council. Aviation Fuels Division. Turbine Vapor Lock Group., Coordinating Research Council. Coordinating Fuel and Equipment Research Committee.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsMLCM 94/01952 (T)
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v. (various pagings) :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL1205461M
LC Control Number94200041

Full text of "DTIC ADA Military Jet Fuels, " See other formats m FILE copy AFWAL-TR AD-A MILITARY JET FUELS, - Charles R. Martel Fuels Branch Fuels and Lubrication Division NOVEMBER DTIC SUMMARY REPORT for period Oct 85 - Oct 87 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Surrogate fuel mixtures for a hydrodepolymerized cellulosic diesel (HDCD) fuel were formulated based on HDCD’s physical properties and chemical composition. HDCD was found to contain alicylic, cyclic, and aromatic compounds. Surrogate mixtures composed of trans-decahydronaphthalene (trans-decalin) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) matched Cited by: 5. Deliberations on the scientific basis of the interim permissible exposure level (PEL) of mg/m 3 for JP-8 required the subcommittee to review relevant exposure assessment, epidemiologic, and toxicologic data. The studies all involved exposure to JP-8 or similar compounds; however, in many studies it is a challenge to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the exposure and dose . Lubricating oils are specially formulated oils that reduce friction between moving parts and help maintain mechanical parts. Lubricating oil is a thick fatty oil used to make the parts of a machine move smoothly. The lubricants market is growing.


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Volatility characteristics of aircraft fuels at elevated temperatures Download PDF EPUB FB2

AVIATION FUELAviation fuel is the fuel used to power aircraft in flight. It must satisfy the unique requirements of both the engine and the airframe of the aircraft.

Currently the great majority (more than 99%) of aviation fuel used in both civil and military aircraft is jet fuel. A small quantity of aviation gasoline is still used in small aircraft. Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook.

If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. The aircraft gas turbine is designed to operate on a distillate fuel, commonly called as jet fuel.

Jet fuels are also composed of hydrocarbons with a little more carbon and usually higher sulphur content than gasoline. Inhibitors may be added to reduce corrosion and oxidation. Volatility refers to how easily a fuel vaporizes.

It affects how easily you can start your car, warm it up, and how well it runs. Diesel fuel comes in two basic grades, each with a different volatility. Automobiles use one and large trucks do better on the other.

VOLATILITY AND ENGINE OPERATION. The ability of a liquid to change to vapor is known as VOLATILITY. All liquids tend to vaporize at atmospheric temperatures, but their rates of vaporization vary.

The rate of vaporiza-tion increases as the temperature increases and as the pressure decreases. (Temperature is more important than pressure.). fuel can be in the inflammable or explosive range.

Jet A fuel has such a low volatility that at normal temperatures it gives off very little vapor and does not form flammable or explosive fuel/air mixtures. Figure shows the vaporization of aviation fuels at atmospheric temperatures. Fuel Types Volatility characteristics of aircraft fuels at elevated temperatures book jet fuels are not dyed, there is no File Size: KB.

EFFECT OF FUEL VOLATILITY ON DRIVEABILITY AT LOW AND INTERMEDIATE AMBIENT TEMPERATURES. The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) measured cold-start and warmup driveability at low ( to 28 deg F) and intermediate (40 to 69 deg F) ambient temperatures using sixteen model cars and nine fuels.

This was the first CRC study at low temperature. Beginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel: Page 3 In the early days of the jet age, speed and luxury were the drivers of intercontinental travel.

Since then, efficiency has been a tremendous driver that has made air travel and transport central to modern life. Indeed, today, our engines are at the cutting edge of. Measurements were made over a range of ambient temperatures, fuel volatilities and different driving patterns.

The uncontrolled vehicles exhibited gasoline vapour emissions which increase progressively with ambient temperature and fuel volatility. A 1°C change in ambient temperature was found to have.

Laminar flame speeds of several fuel/air mixtures were experimentally determined over equivalence ratios of ϕ = –, preheat temperatures of T u = – K, and pressures of P = 1–3 atm in a high-pressure counterflow setup.

Fuels investigated in this work included neat components relevant to liquid transportation fuels, such as n-decane, n-dodecane, iso-octane, Cited by: Combustion Performance and Emissions Characteristics for a Well Stirred Reactor for Low Volatility Hydrocarbon Fuels Conference Paper July.

Front-end volatility was measured by RVP, and mid-range volatility was measured by the temperature at which 50% of the fuel is evaporated (T50). Volatility ranges investigated were those that may be required of future summertime fuels. increases and volatility, and environmental goals for aviation fuels in relation to the potential for biofuels.

The overview of the aviation fuel industry includes production, distribution, and consumption of aviation fuel, and it outlines players in the aviation fuel supply Size: 1MB. The Clean Air Act of required that fuel volatility of gasoline sold at retail be reduced at summer months (June through September 15).

Inthe EPA implemented Phase II requirement which further lowered the acceptable vapor pressure to psi. In some areas, the regulation requires vapor pressure be no greater than psi.

The minimum flash point temperature for commercial Jet A-1 is 38°C, but higher values for the minimum flash point can be found in some military jet fuels, such as JP-5, used on aircraft carriers. The higher the flash point, the less volatile the kerosene becomes.

Essentially, all of the important applications and test methods involved in the fuels and lubricants industry are discussed, either directly or indirectly, and are referenced in this book. Volatility. Volatility is a measure of the tendency of a liquid substance to vaporize under given conditions.

For these reasons, automobile fuels should not be used in aircraft engines, especially air cooled engines operating at high cylinder temperatures.

Vapor Lock. With the advent of fuels having antiknock characteristics superior to. Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine is colorless to straw-colored in appearance.

The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international ance: Straw-colored liquid.

thermal oxidation (at temperatures higher than °C): a typical process for fuels which are in contact with hot surfaces in aircraft fuel systems, pyrolysis: decomposition of the structure of fuels and the formation of deposits due to thermal oxidation on very hot surfaces (deposits are formed in nozzles and sprayers).Cited by: 1.

Essentially, all of the important applications and test methods involved in the fuels and lubricants industry are discussed, either directly or indirectly, and are referenced in this book.

Manual 37 is a comprehensive, in-depth, well-referenced handbook that provides a detailed overview of ALL of the important ASTM and non-ASTM fuels and. Volatility Another fuel property that can influence driveability is volatility. Volatility affects the tendency of the fuel to evaporate enough to start a cold engine, its ability to vaporize fully and be distributed uniformly to all cylinders during and after warm-up, and the possibility during hot operation of producing vapor in the fuel metering system so that vapor lock occurs.

What does fuel volatility mean. Answer Save. 9 Answers. Relevance. Robert A. Lv 5. 1 decade ago. Favourite answer. It means the extent to which it releases vapour, particularly at ambient temperatures.

If there is significant vapour it can make the fuel more hazardous as the vapour can easily catch fire if there is a source of ignition.

The so. of a substance.) This is a function of the liquid’s volatility and temperature. A highly volatile liquid such as AvGas produces flammable vapors at a very low temperature. Jet-A, on the other hand, is much less volatile and requires elevated temperatures to produce flammable vapors (see.

The low-temperature properties of fuels also have a profound effect on the availability of fuels and, therefore, must not be overly restrictive, In view of the above, the optimal low-temperature criteria for fuels should be based on some direct means of insuring fuel pumpability at the temperatures to which the fuels will be exposed.

What are the Different Types of Fuels and Their Characteristics Fuels Most of the substances used for burning are fuels. Substances that produce heat and light energy on burning are called fuels. Some commonly used fuels are wood, coal, cow dung cakes, kerosene, LPG, petrol, and diesel.

We use fuels for cooking, heating, in automobiles, [ ]Author: Sastry. At temperatures higher than °C some fractions in light fuels evaporate while the probability of collision between the evaporated fuel and oxygen particles is higher, which leads to the formation of low-temperature oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids and hydroxyacids in what is called “the first stage of oxidation Author: Krzysztof Biernat.

The more important aspects of volatility related to engine fuels are discussed in the following bits. Starting and warming up: A certain part of gasoline should vapourize at room temperature for easy starting of the engine.

Hence the portion of the distillation curve between 0 and 10% boiled off have relatively low boiling temperatures. A toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion of gasoline or other HC- based fuels. The numerical value assigned to gasoline that indicates the ability to eliminate knocking and/or pinging in an operating engine.

A test used to determine. Development of Aircraft Engines / Aviation Fuels: Two Studies of Relations between Gov't and Industry on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Development of Aircraft Engines / Aviation Fuels: Two Studies of Relations between Gov't and IndustryManufacturer: Harvard Business School.

The volatility of gasoline affects ease of. starting, length of warmup period, and engine performance during normal.

operation. The rate of vaporization increases as the temperature increases hot weather when using highly volatile fuels. When fuel has a tendency to. vaporize at normal atmospheric temperature, it may under higher temperature. emissions, but also as a hedge against oil price volatility and supply shocks.

Aviation biofuels are environmentally fossil fuels (coal to liquids, tar sands, oil shales, etc.). Fred has taught the Aviation Fuels Specifications and Test Methods for ASTM for a number of years. He has been involved in aviation fuels consultation on aviation fuel technology including fuel specifications, test methods, quality control, terminal and aviation operations, technical services, training, contractor and problem resolution with.

The measure of fuel volatility relevant to diurnal emissions should ideally reflect volatility at temperatures typically associated with a vehicle's fuel tank. The most widely accepted measure of volatility in relation to diurnal emissions is RVP, a measure of the fuel's vapor pressure at °F.[7,8] Hot-soak emissions originate both from the.

Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating or road transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperature, among other properties.

Most current commercial airlines and military aircraft use jet fuel for. The present work reports the measurement of the laminar burning velocity for n-propanol and air mixtures at 1 atm pressure, with the unburnt mixture temperature varying up to K using externally heated mesoscale diverging channels.

Planar flames were stabilized in quartz channels using an externally heated mesoscale diverging channel to create a positive temperature Cited by: 8. Under the same conditions, the vapor given off by Jet B fuel can be in the flammable or explosive range. Jet A fuel has such a low volatility that at normal temperatures it gives off very little vapor and does not form flammable or explosive fuel/air mixtures.

Figure shows the vaporization of aviation fuels at atmospheric pressure. A test for determining the composition and volatility characteristics of the components of a given fuel sample. Reid Vapor Pressure Test A test used to determine the pressure produced from the vaporization process.

Kinematic viscosity has been measured for nine separate aviation turbine fuel samples. The nine samples span the range of fuel types available: conventional petroleum-derived fuels, synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch process, and renewable fuels derived from biomass feedstocks.

Results for a tenth sample intended for use in quantifying the total sulfur in fuel oils. The goal of this report is to provide bioenergy stakeholders with (1) an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, as reported in findings by recent working groups, and (2) findings from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop hosted by DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) in September The effect of fuel volatility on altitude starting limits of an axial-flow-compressor-type turbojet engine was investigated using fuels with Reid vapor pressures of and pounds per square inch.

At flight Mach numbers from tothe AN-F fuel allowed consistent windmilling at altitudes to feet higher than was obtained with the pound Reid vapor pressure Cited by: 2. ASTM-D - Standard Test Method for Life of Lubricating Greases in Ball Bearings at Elevated Temperatures; ASTM-D - Standard Test Method for Estimation of Net Heat of Combustion of Aviation Fuels; ASTM-D - Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Semi-Micro Color Indicator Titration.

The Small Engines Workbook provides two practice tests per chapter plus a comprehensive exam. Questions reflect the content and format of the Master Service Technician Exam administered by Briggs.can also damage seals in the aircraft and engine fuel systems.

3. Mogas has a relatively high vapour pressure (the ease at which liquid turns into a gas) and is therefore much more susceptible to causing vapour lock in aircraft fuel systems, particularly at elevated temperatures and higher altitudes.

So, although an aircraft may be able to.